Agriculture

Scout concerned about effect of CAFOs on water quality

Dear BG Independent News, I am a Life Scout from Troop 777 of Toledo, Ohio. I am writing to you to voice my concerns about the effect concentrated animal feeding operations, or CAFO’s have on the recent Lake Erie algae blooms. According to the Sierra Club, there are 146 registered CAFO’s currently in the western Lake Erie Basin. The CAFOs are responsible for generating 700,000,000 gallons of animal waste each year, which is more than the sewage produced by the cities of Los Angeles and Chicago combined. There is a possibility that the waste is seeping out of the storage lagoons, and into the ground, leading to the contamination of nearby groundwater. additionally, the waste is spread directly onto crop fields, resulting in the run-off of excess nutrients into Lake Erie and the feeding of the dangerous algae.   This issue does not only affect this generation, but future generations to come. My wish is for those who read this to help stop the CAFO’s from aiding in dangerous algae blooms, and help make the lives of the citizens healthier. Sincerely, Bryan Fitzpatrick


Farming & food are a family affair for the Froboses

By DAVID DUPONT BG Independent News Bob Frobose’s father didn’t want to keep his son on the farm. After a few bad years, Frobose said, his father sold his herd when he retired in 1974. When Frobose graduated from high school in 1971, and decided not to go to college where he hoped to play basketball, he stayed in the food industry, training to be a meat cutter in a small grocery chain. He’s still a meat cutter, but now he owns the store. And he raises the cattle he processes. He had no problem keeping his own sons in agriculture. All three – Ben, Jake and Zack – are involved in the family business, which now has a number of enterprises. And with grandchildren now romping around the barn, they look forward to this being a fifth generation operation. Frobose told the family’s story during a Food Processing from Farm to Plate event, sponsored by the Wood County Farm Bureau earlier this month. The tour began fittingly in the Frobose barn in Pemberville. “Dad had made it pretty clear that after he retired he didn’t want me to have anything to do with farming,” Frobose said. “He felt there were better opportunities off the farm.” Frobose said he had a good upbringing on the farm though. Both working with the animals, and shooting baskets wherever he could hang a hoop. He joked that now he could tell everyone he was a good player because no one remembers otherwise. “You’re still good,” a grandson chimed up. His father’s attitude toward agriculture didn’t mellow at all in his old age. When his grandsons got steers to show at the fair, “he didn’t even like that,” Bob Frobose said. That was shortly before his death in 1989. A few months later, Frobose’s mother approached him: “I bet you’d like to get some cattle back in the barn wouldn’t you?” In 1990, he had 60-75 head of cattle, and an almost 40-year-old barn, and some learning to do. Working with his father, he said, he just did what he was told. Now he had to now re-educate himself “so basically you don’t kill the animals. … We had some growing pains.” The farm no also raises pigs in fall through spring. That includes having to find market for…


Young African leaders visit community garden, discuss sustainability

Submitted by THE COMMON GOOD Members of the Young African Leaders Initiative’s Mandela Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders gathered with local volunteers at the community garden this past Saturday to see an example of small-scale sustainable farming on Saturday. The YALI members took some time to work the garden and harvest some vegetables before coming together to partake in a roundtable discussion about sustainability. The group discussed comparisons of agriculture in Africa versus agriculture here, as well as cultural views and practices embracing sustainability. The presence of different perspectives provided insight on global views regarding sustainability. To catch a glance of small-scale sustainable farming yourself, stop by the community garden located at the Peace Lutheran Church (1021 W. Wooster St. Bowling Green, OH 43402). Take a look at the communication board at the garden or visit commongoodbg.org for more information.


Wood County to direct growth with new land use plan

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   The new Wood County Land Use Plan does more than give lip service to organized development – it’s added some teeth. Recently the Wood County Commissioners voted unanimously to adopt the new land use plan, which will direct growth to areas with the roads, waterlines and sewer lines to handle it – while maintaining the agricultural and natural areas that are also important to the county. “It’s nice because you have zoning, and zoning is great for directing growth, said Dave Steiner, director of the county planning commission. But the land use plan takes it a step further. “Without a plan, you don’t have something to fall back on.” So if a developer wants to rezone some acreage in the middle of prime farmland for industrial use, the land use plan helps back up the rejection by the county and townships, Steiner said. The plan takes into consideration the latest census information, demographics and development. The plan also looks at “reinvestment areas,” where previous development has “fallen by the wayside” and may need a jumpstart with brownfield development, Steiner said. And the plan defends agricultural areas that are still vital to the county’s economy. The county had outgrown the last land use plan, which had been adopted in 2007. “It was not nearly as comprehensive as this one,” Steiner told the commissioners. The guiding principles of the land use plan are as follows: Support sustainable land use and development patterns, and identify and protect natural and environmental resources. Protect prime agricultural land and support agricultural production. Target economic development areas to support and attract employment generating uses. Identify sensitive natural areas for protection, possible areas for recreation in coordination with these natural areas, and historic or cultural sites to protect. Make efforts to promote redevelopment and reinvestment in areas with existing infrastructure and services and strategically manage the outward expansion of suburban development particularly in townships with the greatest growth pressures. The land use plan was developed by McBride Dale Clarion from Cincinnati, after multiple public meetings to gather citizen input. “I feel we have really addressed the issues” that impact land use in the county, Steiner said. The plan is available for public viewing at the county planning commission, at the county commissioners office, and online…


Farms are victims, & part of the solution, as climate changes

By DAVID DUPONT BG Independent News Farmers are in the crosshairs of climate change. The climate is moving south, said Neocles Leontis, one of the founders of the Black Swamp Green Team. That means as the years go by our weather will be more like what we associate with areas further south, and that means problems for agriculture. The Black Swamp Green team is a loose-knit alliance of faith communities, advocacy groups, non-profits, and individuals that promotes energy efficiency, renewal energy, and sustainability. As Pastor Deb Conklin, of Peace Lutheran said: “Who we are is whoever shows up when we make a decision.” On Sunday the team hosted the Creation Celebration at Peace Lutheran. The event focused on agriculture, the challenges it faces, the ways of addressing those challenges, and its role in combating climate change. Alan Sundermeier, of the Ohio State University Extension Service, catalogued the dangers. The effects of climate change can harm farms, whether it’s increasingly severe rainstorms or drought. Drought, Sundermeier said, poses the greatest danger. High water rarely destroys an entire crop. Drought can. But unpredictable weather, such as can late freeze, can also play havoc with crops. “The variability is more severe.” That severe weather can also carry pests with them. People have to keep in mind that: “Whatever we do, whatever small part we play, affects the rest of the world in big and small ways.” The effects of rising temperature are many. Leontis noted that 2016 was the warmest year on record. Sundermeier showed a slide of a dry, brown field. That field should be green, he said. What could the farmer do to prevent such conditions? “There are ways we can, maybe not totally mitigate, but maybe improve the productivity of our soils in Northwest Ohio when these sort of conditions happen,” he said. “They will happen, maybe floods, maybe drought. That’s what we’re faced with in agriculture, and we have to find ways to deal with it if we’re going to survive.” The key is healthy soil. That’s not just good for farming, but for the atmosphere as well. Soil is a “natural sink for carbon,” he said. “We want it in the soil, where it should be, not in the atmosphere.” Farmers think in terms of “organic matter,” he said. “That’s where the life…


Creation Care Celebration to be held on Sunday

The Black Swamp Green Team’s second Creation Care Celebration will take place Sunday, April 23 from 1:00 pm to 3:00 pm at Peace Lutheran Church, 1201 Martindale Rd at W. Wooster in Bowling Green. The event celebrates local efforts, organizations and leaders practicing good stewardship by increasing awareness and practices for sustainable renewable energy use and healthy living. Lunch will be included, as will music by the Peace Band. Keynote presentation and panel will be on the topic of sustainable and regenerative agriculture by Don Schooner of Schooner Farms, Alan Sundermeier from the Ohio State University Extension Office, and Paul Herringshaw of Bowling Green. There will be recognitions, displays, and electric car test drives. A tour of Schooner Farms will immediately follow the event at 3:30 pm. The Black Swamp Green Team is a collaboration of faith communities, advocacy groups, non-profit entities, and individuals engaged in promoting and practicing good creation care among itself and its constituents so as to: implement energy efficiency; the use of renewable energy; the production and delivery of local renewable energy; and, thereby, improve its overall stewardship of creation.


Velasquez finds his fight for immigrant laborers to be more urgent than ever

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   The Toledo area has anywhere from 6,000 to 10,000 undocumented immigrants. But every week, more are rounded up and shipped out from the Toledo airport, according to farm labor leader Baldemar Velasquez. “Every Tuesday morning, there are more men and women in shackles being boarded onto planes,” Velasquez said Sunday afternoon. Many are being sent back to Mexico through expedited deportations, without being allowed to see an attorney and without being given their due process, he said. “I don’t know how they are getting away with that,” Velasquez said about ICE and border patrol. “One-hundred years from now, people will look back at us like they do the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850,” when the law required escaped slaves to be returned to their owners, he said. “The fact that we are accommodating such a practice is un-American.” Velasquez grew up as a migrant farm laborer, born in Texas and traveling from field to field in the Midwest. Based on those experiences he went on to create the Farm Labor Organizing Committee, in response to the poor treatment of farm workers. That organization, celebrating its 50th anniversary, still works to achieve justice for migrant workers. Velasquez, who spoke Sunday at the Unitarian Universalist Church north of Bowling Green, grew up dirt poor, with a work ethic stronger than most of his white classmates, and with stamina that just didn’t quit. “You always have to finish the job,” he said. “You start that row, you’ve got to finish it. You start that field, you’ve got to finish it. When you’re a farm worker, it doesn’t matter” if you are tired. As an adult, Velasquez has fought for decent pay for farm laborers through FLOC. “Give us a fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work. That’s all we want.” Using boycotts and other strategies, FLOC fought in the past for the laborers in the fields and scored victories over giants like Campbell Soup, Vlasic and Mount Olive pickles. Velasquez is still fighting for farm workers – now working to allow them to stay in the U.S. He has heard it all from the other side. “What don’t you understand about illegal?” he has been asked. If Americans don’t want Mexicans here, then maybe they should reconsider policies such as…


‘Right to Repair’ would be good for consumers

(Submitted by Michael Oberdick, president of iOutlet in Bowling Green. Oberdick has testified in Nebraska and lobbied in Tennessee for ‘right to repair’ bills. He was elected to the Board for Right to Repair and started an effort in Ohio to get a bill on the table in 2018. He is working with farm bureaus in Northwest Ohio, since this affects them.) As an average appreciator of your iPhone, iPad, or MacBook, you may or may not have heard about this little thing called ‘Right to Repair’. Basically, repair shops both large and small are working together to pass legislation that would win local repair shops like mine access to parts, service manuals, and diagnostic tools from electronics manufacturers at a fair price. This sounds good for me, and it is, but it’s really, really good for you. Let me tell you why. But before I do that, let me clarify something: this isn’t just for Apple devices, or even just electronic gadgets. According to the Repair Association, there is good to be had in the industries of agriculture, automotive, consumer electronics, information technology, medical, appliances, equipment resellers, and industrial equipment. Many of you know that I’m homegrown in the farmlands of Northwest Ohio. Here in Northwest Ohio, we do lots of farming, and we use lots of John Deere to do it. But, let’s say something goes wrong with my combine or my tractor. Today’s John Deere is so sophisticated that you can’t figure out what’s wrong without special equipment. And your average farmer doesn’t have access to this equipment. Instead, he has to call out a technician to diagnose his problem. Often, the first-level tech isn’t enough to solve the problem, and he has to call out a second-level tech to diagnose and fix the problem. All this can take days or a week to sort out. As a farmer, It’s not a fun place to be, biting your nails during harvest time, hoping your equipment gets fixed before it rains, especially when you could fix it yourself if you had access to the parts and tools you need. First, Right to Repair will give you more repair options because pricing will be competitive! Third-party repair shops will be able to compete with manufacturers and larger repair chains because they’ll all have access…


Farmers warned they need to do more to stop algae

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   A hundred or so farmers listened to the grim reality last week that they need to do more to prevent algal blooms in Lake Erie. A panel discussion hosted by the Ohio Farmers Union at Otsego High School stressed that while some farmers are voluntarily reducing the phosphorus that creates the harmful algae, their efforts are not likely to be enough to meet the federal goal of a 40 percent reduction. And that means if farmers don’t make the necessary reductions on their own, they may be forced to do so. “We know that farmers need to do more,” said Joe Logan, president of the Ohio Farmers Union. “Farmers need to stand up. They always have before, and I believe they will again.” The alternative is that the Environmental Protection Agency will get involved and set stricter requirements. “If we don’t achieve that, there will be additional regulation,” Logan said. “Farmers need to up their game in terms of the environmental repercussions.” Jeffery Reutter, retired director of the Ohio State Stone Lab, said the 40 percent reduction is only possible if extensive changes are made, and if problem fields are identified. But he also predicted that one-third of farmers are not likely to take needed action without “more aggressive encouragement.” When asked by moderator Jack Lessenberry about the best ways to reduce phosphorus in Lake Erie, the panel had varied answers. Meindert Vandenhengel, who owns a 5,000-head hog farm in Van Wert County, said the only problem is distribution of manure. There is plenty of farmland to handle all the manure, it just needs to be spread properly. But Vandenhengel seemed to be aware of the perspective of people in the Toledo area, who may think, “I buy his pork chops, but he’s poisoning my water,” he said. Logan said rigorous soil tests must be performed and application regulations must be set. “There are enormous economic incentives to take shortcuts,” Logan said of the agricultural industry. “We need absolute limits to application rates.” Reutter said farmers need to apply less phosphorus and the amounts they do apply should be inserted into the soil to prevent runoff. Reutter explained that western basin of Lake Erie is most susceptible to toxic algal blooms because of its shallow depths, the…


Ag advocate urges farmers to open up to consumers

By DAVID DUPONT BG Independent News Emily Buck, an educator, communicator and farmer, was on friendlier ground recently when she addressed the Northwest Ohio Ag-Business Breakfast Forum than she was about a month before in Washington D.C. The proof was right there on the menu. The local group was munching on an egg and cheese dish and tiny sausages. When Buck was a member of the panel at a conference sponsored by Food Tank, lunch was hummus and mushroom burgers. Food Tank, a group that advocates for sustainable agriculture, is not a friend of conventional farming, Buck said.  She even called it “scary” at one point. But she felt she needed to be there. She didn’t hide who she was. She and her husband, John Buck, raise corn, soybeans, and some wheat on about 1,000 acres in Marion County. She also maintains a sheep herd. And the corn and soybeans are grown from genetically modified seed. “This is not a friendly group by any means,” she said. “But I put myself out there because we needed someone from our side be part of the conversation. “There are people making decisions who have never set foot on a farm. They don’t understand why GMOs are allowing me to use less herbicides, letting me have better water quality.” People who care about sustainability are worried about air, soil, water, and habitat. “We have to find a way to talk to people who are concerned about these things in the right way,” Buck said. The associate professor at Ohio State urged farmers to get out of their comfort zones to engage the consumers of what they grow. That means confronting misconceptions and misunderstandings, as well as finding common ground. Facts, she said, are not enough. Connecting emotionally, connecting with the consumers’ values are the only way to get through. In an age of instant communications, that becomes all the more important, Buck said. She quoted writer and animal scientist Temple Grandin as saying: “Every phone is a TV.” That’s frightening for farmers. Much of what happens on the farm is not pretty, and can be misinterpreted as being cruel, she said. That makes farmers and ranchers leery of engaging the public. But those truths need to be confronted as well. A petting zoo does not show an accurate…


Large farms must meet strict regs, ODA official says

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   The Wood County Commissioners often hear about problems with CAFOs – concentrated animal feeding operations.  So last week, they met with the person in charge of keeping track of those large farms and the manure produced by them. Kevin Elder, chief of the Ohio Department of Agriculture’s Division of Livestock Environmental Permitting, gave the county commissioners an overview of CAFOs in Ohio, including the regulations and the numbers in the state. Wood County has three dairy cow CAFOs and one chicken CAFO. Dairy cattle statistics for Ohio show the greatest number of operations with dairy cows as 39,000 farms in 1950. Those farms had more than 1.1 million dairy cows. “That was back when my grandpa taught me how to milk cows,” Elder said. And that was back when it was common for most farms to have their own dairy cows, Wood County Commissioner Doris Herringshaw said. “Everybody had cows.” By 2016, the number of farms with dairy cows had dropped to 2,671, and the number of dairy cows in Ohio had decreased to 266,000. Wayne County leads the state in dairy cows, followed by Mercer and Holmes counties. Ohio ranks 11th in milk production and first in Swiss cheese production. Ohio has the most robotic milkers, Elder said, with one dairy in Wood County being robotic. Cows are also producing so much more milk than in the past, with an average per cow output in the past of 4,000 pounds a year, increasing up to 40,000 pounds a year, he said. The only livestock group that has expanded in the last few years in Ohio is poultry. In 1963, the state had 5 million layer chickens and 10.7 million broilers. By 2015, the layers numbered 33 million and the broilers hit more than 80 million. Ohio ranks second in the U.S. for both laying hens and egg production. “Poultry is the only species that has increased in numbers,” Elder said. “Wood County was the highest beef cattle county in the state at one time, now it’s almost non-existent,” he said. Elder explained to the commissioners what qualifies as a large concentrated animal feeding operation in Ohio: 700 mature dairy cows 1,000 beef cattle 2,500 swine weighing 55 pounds or more 10,000 swine weighing less than 55…


Rebecca Singer, new leader at Center for Innovative Food Technology, is rooted in farming

By DAVID DUPONT BG Independent News In her new position as CEO and president of the Center for Innovative Food Technology, Rebecca Singer has to deal with the entire spectrum of the food industry, from seed to package. She brings just the right mix of experience the job requires. Singer, who took over the leadership role about a month ago, has a degree in agri-business and applied economics from Ohio State, and she managed the state’s Ohio Proud program before taking a position with CIFT 15 years ago. All that is grounded on the farm. She grew up on a farm in Defiance County, and when she moved back to Northwest Ohio to join CIFT, she decided settle back there. She and her brother now manage the operation while their father stays involved in the chores he enjoys like driving the tractor. They grow soybeans and ponder all the issues that farmers face. Do they have enough acreage for a viable soybean operation? Should they transition into vegetables and specialty crops? “It lends a lot of authenticity that these are the kinds of things that go through our minds on our operation,” Singer said. Like Ohio’s weather, the agriculture sector is ever changing. Recently “there’s been such a tremendous amount of interest in local foods,” she said. This effects the farmers who grow the food those who process it. That’s been seen at CIFT’s Northwest Ohio Cooperative Kitchen outside of Bowling Green on Ohio 582.  The facility serves as a launching pad for local food products. “A lot of people enjoy making food for other people,” Singer said. “They enjoy sharing recipes that’s been passed down for generations.” The cooperative kitchen has the equipment and expertise to help that make that happen. CIFT can serve as “a one-stop shop” for producers, helping them identify sources of ingredients, fine-tuning their processing to make it as cost effective as possible, and adhering to food safety procedures. Interest in using the kitchen increased with the local food movement. “It’s really exploded,” she said. More and more people want “a clean label,” she said. They don’t want to see an ingredients list laden with artificial additives and preservatives. Tastes will shift. It’s all about hot and spicy now. The desire for local ingredients is here to stay, she said….


County asked again to take stand against big dairy, for Lake Erie

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   After six months of silence from the Wood County Commissioners, a couple activists were back before the board Tuesday asking for support. The commissioners heard again from Vickie Askins about suspected manure violations from a large dairy, and from Mike Ferner about the need to protect Lake Erie. The two made the same requests as last summer to the commissioners: Write a letter to the Ohio EPA about the dairy, and sign a resolution declaring the lake as impaired. Again, the commissioners asked a few questions, but took no action Tuesday on either request. “This is happening in your county,” Askins said. “I just think this is terrible.” According to Askins, the dairy on Rangeline Road southwest of Bowling Green, has repeatedly violated manure lagoon and manure application regulations during the last 13 years. “There has been a history of violations,” she said of the former Mander Dairy which is now owned by Drost Land Co. Askins informed the commissioners last summer that when Manders Dairy went bankrupt four years ago, it left behind about 10 million gallons of manure it its lagoon. Federal law requires that the manure must be taken care of when a CAFO closes, Askins said. And Ohio EPA requires that no manure be applied to farm fields unless up-to-date soil samples and manure analyses are obtained. Askins, a watchdog of mega dairies in Wood County, said neither has been done. The lagoon is nearly full, and no field application study documentation can be found. Yet, she had seen evidence of “manure irrigators” being constructed near the site. “Everybody acts like this is OK,” she said. “Nobody’s taking any responsibility for this place.” Manure that seeps from the lagoon does not stay onsite, but makes its way to nearby Tontogany Creek, Askins said. “A tributary of Tontogany Creek goes into the Maumee River one mile upstream from the Bowling Green water intake.” The problem is not about to lessen, since owners of the Rangeline Road dairy are interested in expanding, she said. A few miles to the east, the MSB Dairy recently expanded to 2,960 cows. But according to Askins, U.S. dairies are dumping milk due to the current “glut.” A similar excess of milk about seven years ago led to such low…


Rezoning sought for ‘smiley face’ barn site

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   For decades, the giant smiley face on the big white barn welcomed motorists on Interstate 75 as they traveled north of Bowling Green. The message advertised no product – just simply offered a happy greeting, signed Joe & Gertie. Though the smile has faded, the barn still stands at the northwest corner of I-75 and Ohio 582. But Joe and Gertie Carpenter are long gone. The barrel of water at their driveway with a jug for filling strangers’ stubborn radiators is no longer there. And so now it is up to the Carpenters’ three children to decide what to do with the 95 acres the family owns at the site. The land has long been farmed, but developers have approached the offspring about the acreage with easy access to I-75 and Route 582. So Joe and Gertie’s children have asked that Middleton Township change the zoning from A-1 agricultural to M-1 light industrial. “They want to make the property more marketable for industrial and commercial end users,” explained Dave Steiner, director of the Wood County Planning Commission. The zoning request came before the county planning commission on Tuesday on its way to the Middleton Township Trustees, who will make the final decision on the zoning request. There is no specific plan yet for the site, “but they would rather have it zoned and ready to go,” Steiner said. “We’re seeing this more and more.” Other acreage in the area has already gone through the same preparations, such as the property at the southwest corner of Route 582 and Mercer Road. A couple miles to the west, acreage at the southeast corner of Route 582 and Ohio 25 is already being used for industrial purposes. Tom Teet, attorney for the Carpenter family, pointed out how people can recognize the acreage in question. “It’s the barn that has the big smiley face,” he said. The family is not in a rush to sell the acreage, in fact, “the property’s not for sale,” Teet said. However, the three Carpenter siblings and Teet have received multiple phone calls from prospective purchasers. The prospects are no longer interested when they find out the acreage is zoned for agriculture, he said. “The first step is zoning,” Teet said about the M-1 request. “That…


Study: More farmers need to take steps to reduce phosphorus feeding toxic algae

By JAN LARSON McLAUGHLIN BG Independent News   Many northern Ohio farmers have already taken steps voluntarily to cut down on toxic algae blooms – but not enough, according to researchers. The U.S. and Canada have agreed to cut phosphorus discharge into Lake Erie by 40 percent in the next decade. But that goal won’t be met unless more farmers make some changes, according to researchers from Ohio State University. The OSU project found that the following steps by farmers would help reach that 40 percent reduction in phosphorus discharge, which feeds toxic algae in the lake: Apply fertilizer below the soil surface. Plant cover crops which prevent rain from washing fertilizer into waterways. These crops are grown in fields that would otherwise go unplanted. Plant buffer strips, with grass or non-crop plants surrounding the fields. These also keep the fertilizer from going into ditches or creeks, and ultimately into the lake. The OSU study found that 39 percent of farmers in the Lake Erie watershed already use subsurface fertilization, 22 percent grow cover crops and 35 percent plant buffer strips. Those steps have all been taken on a voluntary basis by farmers. However, those efforts are not enough, according to the researchers. To cut the phosphorus discharge in Lake Erie by 40 percent, each of those three preventative steps must grow by at least 20 percent. “A lot of farmers have already taken the risk … to help move the needle,” Jay Martin, project leader and director of OSU’s Field to Faucet water quality program said recently, according to the Associated Press. “That’s really encouraging. But we need to accelerate.” When contacted this week, Martin expressed optimism that voluntary efforts by farmers in this region of Ohio can result in the difference needed. According to Martin, information from surveys of farmers in the Maumee watershed shows there is great potential for farmers to reach the needed levels of adoption. “The surveys we have completed show likely future adoption rates for these practices exceeding these needed levels,” Martin said. “It’s also important to note that many farmers have already adopted these practices, as demonstrated by current adoption rates of 39 percent for subsurface placement of phosphorus fertilizer and 22 percent for cover crops,” Martin said. “With continued and accelerated adoption of these practices, it appears…